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Freshwater Crayfish 3(1): 381-387 (1977)


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Crayfish as 'toxicological tools' in field and laboratory experiments

Leonhard SL  e-mail link

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This paper relates the use of stock cultures of the crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen), established and maintained in the laboratory, to the assessment of the environmental impact of toxicants. The first study involved a stream monitoring program for the insecticides, fenitrothion (Leonhard, ,1974); the second, a river survey for the insecticide methoxychlor.

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Leonhard SL. (1977). Crayfish as 'toxicological tools' in field and laboratory experiments. Freshwater Crayfish 3(1):381-387. doi: 10.5869/fc.1977.v3.381



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