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Freshwater Crayfish 15(1): 292-323 (2006)


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Distribution of crayfish in Europe and adjacent countries: updates and comments

Machino Y and Holdich DM  e-mail link

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The general distribution of crayfish in Europe and adjacent countries is updated, particularly for some countries in Eastern Europe. The latest observations are based on field observations; examination of museum specimens; and the available literature, some of which has not been readily available to astacologists in Western Europe. The question of when a crayfish should be considered indigenous is discussed. For example, Astacus astacus can be treated as indigenous because of its historical contact with man even if it is exotic in the strict biological sense. Some pitfalls of setting up databases of crayfish distributional data are revealed: extinct vs. extant populations, native vs. stocked populations, data correcting/verifying, data use in protection. The setting up of databases needs to be improved. Also education of the public in crayfish matters is a priority.

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Machino Y and Holdich DM. (2006). Distribution of crayfish in Europe and adjacent countries: updates and comments. Freshwater Crayfish 15(1):292-323. doi: 10.5869/fc.2006.v15.292



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